Strange sybase behavior around daylight savings time (DST) - sybase-ase

I've got a strange sybase behavior which I do not understand.
I have a table (MY_TABLE) with several columns of type smalldatetime. For illustration purposes let's assume the following table and data:
||4711|3/31/2013 12:00:00 AM|3/31/2013 3:00:00 AM|someText|
TS_INIT and TS_LASTCHANGE are of type smalldatetime.
When executing the following statement I get the above result:
WHERE ID = 4711
My client is running in UTC+1 (Berlin) and has daylight savings time (DST) enabled.
I am not sure in what time zone the server is running and whether or not DST is enabled.
When I execute this (note that it is 03:00h):
WHERE ID = 4711 AND TS_LASTCHANGE = "2013-03-31 03:00:00:000"
I get NO results but when I execute this (note that it is 02:00h this time):
WHERE ID = 4711 AND TS_LASTCHANGE = "2013-03-31 02:00:00:000"
I do again get the above result which is saying TS_LASTCHANGE is
3/31/2013 3:00:00 AM
Note that the result prints 03:00h, even though I queried for 02:00h.
Why Is the first query returning no results even though there should be a match and why is the second query returning a result even though there should be no match?!
Note also that 3/31/2013 3:00:00 AM is the first moment in DST (at least in the year 2013) and 3/31/2013 2:00:00 AM should never ever exist at all because when transitioning from winter to summer time, the clock switches from 01:59:59 to 03:00:00 (as per this site).
Database: Adaptive Server Enterprise V15.0.3
Client: Aqua Data Studio V16.0.5
When querying whit the TS_INIT everything works as one would expect (only a result for 3/31/2013 12:00:00 AM)

Aqua Data Studio is written in Java.
The problem you are having has to do with the fact that Java is aware of timezones and databases don't have a concept of timezone when they store date and times. When the time comes back from the database, the database's JDBC driver puts it in a Java date and just assumes the timezone is irrelevant. The problem happens when you try to display a time which the JVM thinks is invalid, so a valid date is presented, which basically pushes the time by an hour. Daylight savings for 2015 started on March 08 2.00 AM and one of your rows contains a date which is invalid according to JVM.
This has been a known design issue with Java, and they are trying to fix this with JSR-310 for inclusion in Java SE 8. With this, they will have LocalDate, OffsetDate and ZonedDate. You can read more about it here ...
The only workaround, is to probably trick the JVM by setting the timezone in the JVM to GMT. If you are running ADS 16 on Windows, and you launch ADS with the shortcut icon on the desktop (which runs datastudio.exe), then you need to modify the datastudio.ini file in your folder. Add a new entry for vmarg.5=-Duser.timezone=gmt
This link explains the location of where to find the data studio.ini
Once you have made the change, Restart ADS. Then go to Help->About->System: and double check your user.timezone setting and make sure it is GMT. Then give it a try.
With the above change there might be side effects in the application where timezone are involved, For e.g. in the Table Data Editor->Insert Current Date&Time, which would display a GMT time ... so there would be an offset.


timezone offset in javascript display

I'm running into what seems to be a common problem of using a javascript datepicker to display and allow users to select dates from a calendar of available schedule dates for room reservations.
The browser's timezone conversion means that these dates are always off by some margin, so that often when displaying a reserved date to the user, the date will fall on "tomorrow" to the viewer, when the server (the timezone local to the asset or room as stored in the DB) shows them as "today".
I would like the user's browser to ignore the javascript date conversion and just use the actual datetime that is passed in by the database.
However, this even happens on a really simple example like this:
var date = '2013-02-05';
var newdate = new Date(date);
console.log(newdate); // Mon Feb 04 2013 16:00:00 GMT-0800 (PST)
It appears that the date variable is assumed by the browser to be GMT, and when I create a javascript date object from it, it converts that GMT time to my local time.
Is the best practice in this case to use GMT dates in the database, and set the site's local time offset as a variable in the javascript, which can then be used to offset the dates displayed to the end user, and again offset the dates received from the end user for insertion into the database?
This is confusing since there's so many potential pitfalls-- the PHP locale, mysql locale, or browser's locale could all factor into it and mess up the final date. Any advice on ensuring a consistent date value appreciated!
Good question, handling timezones is a mess. Fortunately Javascript has UTC variants of most of its methods. See
I think the best is to use UTC dates everywhere (except UI maybe). Make sure that server uses and stores UTC dates, and use the javascript UTC methods everywhere. That's the first and most important step, so you know the dates are consistent.
How you present dates in UI is lot less straightforward, and kind of depends on the target audience, application nature etc. I think that's more a subject of discussion, and kind of unanswerable in Stack Overflow (there are other forums for subjective pondering).
I'd say don't trust browser or any kind of geolocation to autoconvert timezones; it should be user configurable, or maybe group/project/install specific setting. Some software are mainly used inside one timezone, and trying to automatically convert timezones might be confusing and annoying for users, if they are used to communicate in some "standard" time. Should user see times in different timezone if he or she is travelling? Sometimes it makes sense, sometimes not, but at least make sure the user knows what logic you are following, both when reading and inputting times.
I develop project management software where it's important these things are handled unambiguously bot by the application, and by users (!). My approach is to always force UTC both for display and input. It's also clearly visible in each date that it is UTC. Handling a variety of timezones would get hairy quick, and I decided it's better to just not do that. I have some helpers in parts of the UI that show the same info in users local timezone etc in fine print. There is a project-wide setting to "hide all timezone-related stuff, and force timezone x", that can be used in smaller projects that are known to never cross timezone boundaries, there is an agreement to use certain zone, or it's just a given and its better to not bother users with that kind of complexity.
EDIT: I should add that, as an example how hairy this can get, sometimes a time is only a time. In some contexts, an event at 15:00 could mean it happens at 15:00 at different places, at their respective local timezones. Uhh....

Some questions about EDT and time difference

Introduction to my website
My website is for visitors in Korea(AKA Republic of Korea).
And the server for My website is in the United States of America.
And PHPMyAdmin displays EDT when it runs a query SELECT ## system_time_zone.
Structure of my website
When I first uploaded my website to this server in October this year, I checked the DB time.
And it seemed that there was a time difference of 13 hours with Korea. So I added 3600 * 13 seconds to DB time(without setting timezone) as follows.
const Offset = 3600 * 13;
$SelectNow = $PDO->prepare('SELECT DATE_ADD(NOW(), INTERVAL '.Offset.' SECOND)');
$SelectNow->execute() or exit;
$DbNow = $SelectNow->fetchColumn();
My website takes $DbNow as above and uses it in various situations.
For example, in the posting situation, enter $DbNow in the datetime field of the INSERT INTO query as follows:
$WriteNote = $PDO->prepare('INSERT INTO table_note(my_datetime, my_contents) VALUES("'.$DbNow.'", :my_contents)');
$WriteNote->bindValue(':my_contents', $my_contents, PDO::PARAM_STR);
The problem situation
One day in November of this year, when I wrote a post and checked the date field(my_datetime) of the post, I got an additional time difference of one hour with Korea.
Apparently, at the end of October, I corrected the time difference of 3600 * 13. And then I confirmed that it matches the Korean time. However, in November, There is a time difference of one hour!
Guess the cause
It seems that US summer time is being applied to the DB server of my website. Did I guess right?
My question
1) How can I solve this time difference fundamentally?
Is it correct to convert DB time to KST?
Or is it the correct way to convert to UTC and then added 3600 * x to UTC?
2) Even though the problem is resolved, some of the existing data in my DB has a time difference of one hour with Korean time.
What query do I use if I want to select the data with a time difference?
And how much more or subtract it from the data to get rid of the 1 hour time difference?
Use UTC to store time in Database.
change your queries to insert with UTC datetimes.
Use external libraries to convert UTC to respective timezones.
(below are the my personal recommendation.)
There may be best of it.
PHP : Carbon
Javascript : Moment, moment timezone.
No, it takes timezone of Database server resides in.
little manual verification, or create a job to change all dates in UTC.
I mean you can create a script and run with cron job.

Handling timezones and dates

I am having an issue getting my head around storing and retrieving information based on a date (no time) and dealing with multiple timezones.
By default my application uses UTC, so create/update times are all in UTC and PHP functions such as date etc all use UTC.
My problem is this:
I allow users to create a news item, the news item has a date (no time, just date).
The application uses UTC, my user is in Sydney, so what I do is when the form loads I pre-populate the date field based of jS M Y for the Australia/Sydney timezone, this way it shows as today for him. All good so far.
When I save the record into the database (into a DATE field) I use the date they entered so if they said 3rd March 2016, then it goes in as 2016-03-03.
When it gets pulled out again it displays fine for them, but if I do a report saying "How many news items published today?", in my report (cron job) it might be looking for a different date, because if this person entered it in early morning, then 3rd March 2016 for Sydney is still going to be 2nd March 2016 in UTC so there will be 0 for today.
The solution it appears would be to convert the date back to UTC when you store it, but how will that work?.. Since it's just a date with no time.
2nd March 2016 00:00:00 UTC would be 2nd March 2016 10:00:00 Sydney
So.. I am not sure how to solve this without them having to also enter a time, which seems redundant.
Always remember that savings time rules vary between countries, such as the USA and EU. Not just when the clocks change but timings of changes across time zones.
In the past I forced a local hour of 12:00 (noon). With a time value the standard conversion routines be used. Choosing noon kept everything well away from any midnight and savings time issues as an hour slip either way would still be in the same day.
The simplest way is to ALWAYS work with full UTC timestamps under the hood.
Convert incoming dates to these straight away, and only convert back to readable, localized formats when rendering.
This way you have a single, solid, point of reference. Everything in your database has logged exactly when it was created (relative to the 1st of January 1970 - UTC).
Then it becomes trivial to order articles in order of creation (regardless of where their authors posted from). It's also much easier to count how many articles were added in the last 24 hours, or on a specific day (for example; seven days ago) -- notice how these examples don't require a date, just ranges of seconds.
This also makes it easy to show "user A" when "user B" added an article, relative to user A's timezone -- you don't need to look up user B's timezone to do the conversion.
Also, give your user the option to add a time to their articles, but don't make it mandatory. Have a sensible default (ideally a dynamic "now"). This is more natural, and should smooth out the midnight and DST anomalies highlighted by Gilbert, when building reports.
It actually sounds like you are doing things correctly already.
The concepts of "today" and a "date" are calendering concepts, covered by the domain of civil time. You can fly around the world with a printed calendar, and you don't need to adjust it for UTC or time zones. A date itself can't be "in UTC".
However, you can say that in the domain of absolute time, that a date in time zone A does not cover the same instantaneous moments of time that are covered by time zone B. At any given time, there could be two different "todays" in effect on the Earth.
By the perspective of your Sydney user, March 3rd was the publishing date. You might have another user in Hawaii publishing simultaneously at March 2nd.
Inherently then, your posting date is the civil date that the item was posted. When you query for all items posted "today", that is based on the civil date of wherever you're at when you're asking.
If this isn't the desired behavior, then change the question. Instead of asking "what was posted today", ask "what was posted in the last 24 hours?" For that, you would indeed need to store the full UTC-based date and time (not just date) of the post. Then you would query it by UTC time from now less 24 hours.
A thought exercise that will help: What should you do if a user posts at 23:59 UTC, and you run a query one minute later? Should it include the result - or not? Does your answer change if it's 23:59 local time and you run the query one minute later in the same time zone? Thinking this through will help you decide what you should actually be storing and querying.
I'll also say that in most cases you should indeed store a UTC based timestamp, but you may want to also store the local date (or datetime) in a separate field. This gives you the ability to do both types of queries.

When to send an email using UTC and use data where published time is specified

This may be a strange question but here goes.
I have a script that reads several sources (RSS) and then compiles a list of articles and sends an e-mail.
I use the pubDate tag
<pubDate>Thu, 27 Apr 2006</pubDate>
and then select all data that is published yesterday with -1 day in php.
I use UTC and my question is when should I run the script to make sure that I get everything that was in fact published. Is it me that is confused or is there a perfect time not to miss anything?
For instance, if I run the script 08:00 UTC there may be locations where data is not published yet, and perhaps one hour later stuff will still be on the same day but not retrieved when I run the script the next day.
Thanks for any input on schedules etc.
In practice, time zone offsets range from UTC-12:00 to UTC+14:00. Since each time zone has it's own concept of a day, if you want to cover the entire world you'll have to run your script until after 12:00 PM (Noon) UTC.
In other words, to cover any concept of May 1st, you'll have to wait until Noon UTC on May 2nd.
You might also want to a allow a few minutes for clock discrepencies. 12:05 PM UTC would work well.
HOWEVER - in many cases, you don't want to process the entire world at once. If you can separate the data by it's time zone, you may instead want to run a series of separate smaller batches after midnight in each time zone.

How to deal with timezones between server and client?

I'm developing a website where I have to deal with different possible timezones from the users. This becomes a great problem since the website hosts time-delicate events like auctions.
All dates/times on the server are in UTC. Database stores everything in UTC timestamps. PHP default timezone is set to UTC too (date_default_timezone_set('UTC');).
Now, my problem is how I should interact with the users, whether I'm only showing a date or, more important, I'm reading a date/time from user input.
A concrete example:
An auction has a deadline, which I store in database as UTC.
When I view the auction on the website, a javascript timer uses a Date object to calculate the remaining time. It automatically converts the timezone to GMT+0100 (my local timezone). So if the deadline is '2013-08-08 10:46:08' (UTC), the javascript date object will return Aug 08 2013 11:26:15 GMT+0100 (GMT Standard Time).
If the current time is greater than 11:46:08 then the timer says that the remaining time is 00:00 (which is correct).
But if I try to insert a bid, the server accepts since the condition on the MySQL INSERT evaluates to true:
INSERT INTO Bids ... WHERE ... AND auction_deadline > NOW() ...
( because auction_deadline = '2013-08-08 10:46:08' and NOW() = '2013-08-08 10:26:50')
All this mumbo jumbo of timezone melts my brains. What am I missing here? I'm almost certain that storing all dates/times in UTC inside the database is the best. I just can't think crystal clear how do deal with it between the user and the database.
Your problem doesn't involve timezones at all, just the fact that clients can turn their clocks or have their clock skewed considerably. For that the fix is to poll the server every once in a while for an offset fix to use in calculations.
In fact, you don't even need date objects. There is a certain universal instant in time when the auction ends. Let's say it is 1375960662823. Right now, the universal instant in time is 1375960669199, so from that we see that the auction ends in 6 seconds (1375960662823 - 1375960669199 ~ 6000 ). It will end in 6 seconds regardless if I am in Morocco or Japan. Do you understand it yet?
To generate these numbers, on the client side you can call var now = + skewFix where skewFix is the correction that needs to applied in case client has time skew or manually set their computer to wrong time.
In PHP, you can generate it with $now = time() * 1000;
Date in JavaScript uses local timezone. You should get UTC time for the user and send it to the server
new Date
Thu Aug 08 2013 17:00:14 GMT+0530 (India Standard Time)
(new Date("Thu Aug 08 2013 17:00:14")).toUTCString();
"Thu, 08 Aug 2013 11:30:14 GMT"
This will resolve the timezone issue between the server and client.
You said
( because auction_deadline = '2013-08-08 10:46:08' and NOW() = '2013-08-08 10:26:50')
In MySQL - NOW returns the current time in the server's local time zone (docs).
You probably want something like UTC_TIMESTAMP which returns the current time in UTC (docs).
Also - you probably shouldn't accept any input time from the client JavaScript at all. Only trust your own clock. When a bid is placed, use the time on your server in MySQL or in PHP. Don't accept it as input.
You can do the following
once page is loaded, send an ajax request to server with timezone offset of user. You can get timezone offset using the following code.
var curdate = new Date()
var offset = curdate.getTimezoneOffset()
offset is timezone offset in minute.
I think it will help.
This is rather a typical subject yet very complex for most to understand. First thing, you never mention the DAYLIGHT SAVING. yeah I am increasing your tension :).
Now let us see how we can do this. You did a good job by saving the Time in UTC. Now, I hope you have registered members and that each member has ability to set their preferred timezone, otherwise you will show Server' timezone based time to them.
When you through "start time" to user you must send them after converting UTC time to their time, similarly when you accept TIME from browser be it user action or javascript you need to convert that time to UTC considering the fact that user is that time zone that he select for his profile.
Hope that clear the idea on where you are going wrong? Please read through day light saving as that will play an important role too when you move ahead with other logic on same.
You can use javascript's Timezone offset, for auto submission and user input based on his settings.
everytime when you get the date from the clientside, you can use the getUTC to convert to UTC date ie:
var todayDate = new Date();
var todayDateInUTC = new Date(todayDate.getUTCFullYear(), todayDate.getUTCMonth(), todayDate.getUTCDate(), todayDate.getUTCHours(), todayDate.getUTCMinutes(), todayDate.getUTCSeconds());
so right before you insert the bid date to database, use the getUTC functions to convert it into UTC format.